The great Moroccan Sufi shaykh Ahmad b. Idris rahimahullah believed that, in terms of theology and creed (‘aqidah), the only thing Muslims needed to believe is what he called “The Creed of Imam al-Shafi’i” (radi’Allahu ta’ala ‘anhu):
عقيدة الإمام الشافعي رضي الله تعالى عنه
آمنت بالله وبما جاء من عند الله على وفق مراد الله
آمنت برسول الله وبما جاء من عند رسول الله على وفق مراد رسول الله
اللهم إني أؤمن بما تعلم أنه الحق عندك وأبرأ إليك مما تعلم أنه الباطل عندك
فخذ مني مجملا ولا تطالبني بالتفصيل
“I believe in God and in what came from God, according to what was meant by God. I believe in the Messenger of God and in what came from the Messenger of God, according to what was meant by the Messenger of God. O God, I believe in what You know to be the truth with You, and I declare to You my disassociation from what You know to be false with You. So take it from me as a whole, and do not demand from me the details.”
He (shaykh Ahmad b. Idris) argued that the only sure way to understand the meaning of God’s descriptions in the Qur’an is through God’s self-disclosure to the servant.
Source: Reassurance for the Seeker, pp. 12, 13
This is tafwid and enough. Pure Athari creed.
In hadith nr. 390 of the work by shaykh ‘Abd al-Ghaffar Hasan “The Way of the Prophet” we read: On the authority of Anas b. Malik (r.) that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: ‘Go forth [in jihad against the enemy] with the Name of Allah, by [the capability and support of] Allah and [remain steadfast] upon the way of the Messenger of Allah. Do not kill the frail, old man, the small child or the woman. Do not steal from the war booty. Gather your gains and behave with righteousness and excellence, for truly, Allah loves those who show excellence.’ Abu Dawud (Mishkat, Chapter on Fighting during jihad, hadith nr. 3956)
In the commentary it is said: Islam has explained the fundamental etiquette of war, that one should only fight enemy combatants. One must not target innocent children, women or decrepit, elderly people.
Other etiquettes of war from this hadith:
- jihad (only) in the name of Allah
- rely on Allah’s help and assistance
- folllow the sunna of the Prophet s.a.w.s.
- don’t steal from the booty / spoils of war
- gather the gains
- behave with righteousness (islah) and excellence (ihsan)
In hadith nr. 1316 of Bulugh ul-Maram by imam Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani rahimahullah we can read the following: Abu Ayyub (al-Ansari) -may Allah be pleased with him- narrated that this verse (Q. 2:195) was revealed concerning us (al-Ansar). He was referring to the verse “And don’t throw yourselves into destruction (at-tahlukah)“. Abu Ayyub said that to answer those who disapproved of the action of those who attacked ar-Rum (Byzantines) till they were amidst their army. Related by the three imams. At-Tirmidhi, Ibn Hibban and al-Hakim graded it as sahih.
In the accompanying footnote it is said: When the Muslims confronted the Rum at Constantinopel, a Muslim fighter attacked the lines of the Rum until he was in their midst, and then returned. People then cried: ‘He is throwing himself into destruction.’ Abu Ayyub then told them that they are misinterpreting the verse which was revealed concerning the Ansar, when Allah granted them victory they said to themselves secretly: our property was lost, so why don’t we stay here to take care of our property and regain what we have lost (and leave jihad in the cause of Allah). Allah the Almighty then revealed this verse to show them that the real destruction occurs by staying back in their dwellings and not spending their wealth in the cause of Allah.
Shaykh dr. ‘Abd ul-‘Azim Badawi -in his work Al-Wajiz fi Fiqh as-Sunnah wa’l-Kitab al-‘Aziz (English translation, pp. 651, 652) mentions this as well and refers to the tafsir of Ibn Kathir where this story has been mentioned.
This aya and hadith are proofs for the permissibility of inghimas / taghrir bi’l-nafs in a jihad.
I wrote an article on the recent important discovery of a lost poem on ‘aqidah of the Kittani family in Morocco.
Download it here: The important discovery of a lost poem
Imam Malik and weak narrators?
Did Imam Malik narrate (ahadith) from weak narrators? We read statements from several scholars that:
– “Imam Malik never narrates except from the trustworthy narrators.” (Imam ‘Ali b. al-Madini)
– “Everyone whom imam Malik narrates from is trustworthy.” (Imam Ahmad b. Hanbal)
And there are more similar statements from the ‘ulama.
But we also read:
وقال يحيى بن معين كل من روي عنه مالك بن أنس فهو ثقة إلا عبد الكريم البصري أبو أمية ” تهذيب الكمال ”
And Yahya b. Ma’in said: “Whoever Malik b. Anas narrated from (him), (and he) is trustworthy, (or in another translation: Everyone from whom Malik ibn Anas narrates is a trustworthy narrator) except for ‘Abd al-Karim al-Basri Abu Umayyah”. (Tahdhib ul-Kamal) He was considered “matruk” (left / abandonded), which means: a narrator whose hadith transmission was discarded due to unreliability.
More info on ‘Abd al-Karim al-Basri Abu Umayyah we can read in at-Ta’liq al-Mumajjad, a commentary on the Muwatta of Imam Muhammad by shaykh ‘Abd al-Hayy al-Laknawi rahimahullah: ‘Abd al-Karim ibn Abi’l-Mukhariq. Two [narrators] are called ‘Abd al-Karim. (..) The second was Ibn Abi’l-Mukhariq whose kunya was Abu Umayyah, and he is to be abandonded, as is in al-Qawl al-Musaddad fi’dh-Dhibb ‘an Musnad Ahmad by Hafiz Ibn Hajr al-‘Asqalani. He said in at-Tamhid (by imam Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr): “He is weak, about which people of hadith are unanimous.” (..) his way of living deceived Malik [about his qualities as a narrator of hadith], for he was not one of the people of his town so that he could know him. He died in 126 AH or 127 AH. As-Suyuti said in Mirqat as-Su’ud: It is not sound in that which ‘Abd al-Karim ibn Abi’l-Mukhariq alone narrates to judge that he fabricated, because Malik narrated from him, and it is well known that it was his habit only to narrate from those he regarded as trustworthy narrators even if others discovered what necessarily required taking a critical view of him.
Imam Malik related several ahadith in the Muwatta (both most well-known versions of Imam Muhammad and al-Laythi) from ‘Abd al-Karim al-Basri Abu Umayyah.
He is not the only weak narrator (each differing in grade of weakness) imam Malik narrates from, there are more (about which some doubts have been raised), for example:
– Sharik b. Abi Namir / Numayr (although trustworthy according to Ibn Sa’id and Abu Dawud)
– ‘Asim b. ‘Ubayd Allah
– ‘Ata al-Khurasani (Imam al-Bukhari regarded him as weak although Yahya b. Ma’in and Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr disagreed with imam al-Bukhari)
– Dawud b. al-Husayn (although Yahya b. Ma’in regarded him as trustworthy)
Does this mean the Muwatta contains weak narrations? This question is answered here: http://english.islamweb.net/emainpage/index.php?page=showfatwa&Option=FatwaId&Id=274981 Although this fatwa is anonymous the information is correct as I have heard the same from my teacher. The different versions do have some mursal and mawquf ahadith, which technically means they are weak, and it has some balaghat, but those issues have been resolved by later scholars.