The word fiqh linguistically (lughatan) means deep understanding (fahm al-daqiq). Technically (istalahan) it means knowledge of the practical legislative rulings derived from their detailed evidences.
The scholars divide fiqh into seven types and they are:
- al-‘ibadat (worship), those rulings connected to worshipping Allaah such as prayer and fasting
- al-ahwal al-shakhsiyyah (personal affairs) such as the rulings connected to the family, marriage and divorce
- al-mu’amalat (dealings), those rulings that define and arrange relationships between people such as trade, contracts and so on.
- al-ahkam al-sultaniyyah (rulership and governance), those rulings that arrange and organize the relationship between the ruler and the ruled.
- al-‘uqubat (punishments), the rulings pertaining to prescribed punishments, retribution and reprimand, chastisement.
- al-huquq al-duwaliyyah (state rights), rules that define the relationship between an Islamic state with other states
- al-adab (manners), rulings pertaining to manners, character, etiquette.
There are other ways to divide fiqh into types.
Source: “Simple, Summarized Fiqh Principles” by Imad Ali Jumu’ah