The different types of fiqh

The word fiqh linguistically (lughatan) means deep understanding (fahm al-daqiq). Technically (istalahan) it means knowledge of the practical legislative rulings derived from their detailed evidences.

Its types

The scholars divide fiqh into seven types and they are:

  1. al-‘ibadat (worship), those rulings connected to worshipping Allaah such as prayer and fasting
  2. al-ahwal al-shakhsiyyah (personal affairs) such as the rulings connected to the family, marriage and divorce
  3. al-mu’amalat (dealings), those rulings that define and arrange relationships between people such as trade, contracts and so on.
  4. al-ahkam al-sultaniyyah (rulership and governance), those rulings that arrange and organize the relationship between the ruler and the ruled.
  5. al-‘uqubat (punishments), the rulings pertaining to prescribed punishments, retribution and reprimand, chastisement.
  6. al-huquq al-duwaliyyah (state rights), rules that define the relationship between an Islamic state with other states
  7. al-adab (manners), rulings pertaining to manners, character, etiquette.

There are other ways to divide fiqh into types.

Source: “Simple, Summarized Fiqh Principles” by Imad Ali Jumu’ah

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