Category Archives: Fiqh

Imam al-Mardawi

Er is weinig info te vinden over deze imam in het Engels, laat staan in het Nederlands.

Hieronder volgt een zeer korte biografie.

‘Ala al-Din al-Mardawi al-Dimashqi al-Salihi (gest. 885 AH / 1480 na Chr.) was een qadi en één van de belangrijkste specialisten en muhaqqiq van de madhhab onder de latere Hanbali generaties. Hij is de auteur van al-Insaf, een rijk commentaar op al-Muqni’ van imam Ibn Qudama, waarin hij de meningsverschillen opsomt en daarna de correcte positie van de madhhab vermeldt.

Andere werken van de imam zijn o.a.:

Tashih al-Furu’

Mukhtasar al-Furu’

Sharh al-Adab

Tahrir al-Manqul in usul al-fiqh

al-Tahbir fi sharh al-Tahrir

– Fatawa

 

Bronnen:

http://shamela.ws/index.php/author/580

http://www.feqhweb.com/vb/t6544.html

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al-Haythami and al-Haytami

People often confuse these 2 great Shafi’i ‘ulama from Egypt. Who were they? Some short biographical info.

1.) ‘Ali b. Abu Bakr b. Sulayman al-Haythami (d. 807 AH / 1404 CE)

In Arabic: الهيثمي

He was a muhaddith and student of the great imam Zayn ud-Din al-‘Iraqi.

He was THE expert on zawa’id literature in hadith and compiled many works in this field. His most famous work is a great encyclopedia of hadith: Majma’ az-Zawa’id wa manba’ al-Fawa’id.

2.) Ibn Hajar al-Haytami al-Makki [not to be confused in his turn with Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani] (d. 973/974 AH)

In Arabic: الهيتمي

He was a muhaddith but also a great faqih, a student of imam Zakariya al-Ansari and Shihab ad-Din al-Ramli. He was ONE the 3 main authorities in the maddhab.

Famous for his Fatawa al-Haytamiyyah, sharh on the 40 hadith of an-Nawawi and the sharh of the Minhaj by an-Nawawi

As we can see they lived in different centuries. People often mistake them and in transcribing their names (t and th) they makes mistakes as well, just like Ibn al-Jawzi and Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah. They had their own specialities in hadith and fiqh.

May Allah have mercy on them.

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The different types of fiqh

The word fiqh linguistically (lughatan) means deep understanding (fahm al-daqiq). Technically (istalahan) it means knowledge of the practical legislative rulings derived from their detailed evidences.

Its types

The scholars divide fiqh into seven types and they are:

  1. al-‘ibadat (worship), those rulings connected to worshipping Allaah such as prayer and fasting
  2. al-ahwal al-shakhsiyyah (personal affairs) such as the rulings connected to the family, marriage and divorce
  3. al-mu’amalat (dealings), those rulings that define and arrange relationships between people such as trade, contracts and so on.
  4. al-ahkam al-sultaniyyah (rulership and governance), those rulings that arrange and organize the relationship between the ruler and the ruled.
  5. al-‘uqubat (punishments), the rulings pertaining to prescribed punishments, retribution and reprimand, chastisement.
  6. al-huquq al-duwaliyyah (state rights), rules that define the relationship between an Islamic state with other states
  7. al-adab (manners), rulings pertaining to manners, character, etiquette.

There are other ways to divide fiqh into types.

Source: “Simple, Summarized Fiqh Principles” by Imad Ali Jumu’ah

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Biografie shaykh Mayyarah

Korte biografie shaykh Mayyarah, de commentator van al-Murshid al-Mu’in

Hij is Abu ‘Abdallah Muhammad bin Ahmad bin Muhammad al-Maliki al-Fasi ook wel bekend als Mayyarah (gest. 1661/1662). Hij was een jurist (faqih) en theoloog afkomstig uit Fez en één van de meest gerenommeerde geleerden van zijn tijd. Hij is vooral bekend vanwege zijn commentaren op de tekst van zijn belangrijkste leraar Ibn ‘Ashir (moge genade met hen beiden hebben) “al-Murshid al-Mu’in”, met de titels:

Mukhtasar al-Durr al-Thamin wa’l-Mawrid al-Ma’in, bekend als Mayyarah al-Saghir, en

Mayyarah al-Kabir (de langere uitgebreidere versie van het eerstgenoemde commentaar)[1]

Verder schreef hij:

– Een commentaar (sharh) op de Tuhfah al-Hukkam van Ibn ‘Asim, een werk voor qadi’s, met de titel “al-Itqan wa’l-Ihkam fi Sharh Tuhfat al-Ahkam”.

– Een commentaar op de Lamiyyah van al-Zaqqaq (Lamiyyah fi’l-Ahkam), een werk van Maliki fiqh, met de titel “Fath al-‘Alim al-Khalaq bi Sharh Lamiyyah al-Zaqqaq”.

– Een gedicht met de titel Nazm al-La’ali wa’l-Durrar, dit bevat een fahrasah en derhalve biografische informatie over hemzelf.[2]

– Een werk van Maliki fiqh met de titel Zubdat al-Awtab fi Ikhtisar al-Hattab.

– Een werk met de naam Nasihat al-Mughtarrin ter verdediging van moslims van joodse origine zoals hemzelf.[3]

Shaykh Mayyarah werd begraven op de Darb al-Tawil begraafplaats vlakbij de Qarawiyyin moskee in Fez.

Bronnen

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad_Mayyara

https://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%85%D8%AD%D9%85%D8%AF_%D9%85%D9%8A%D8%A7%D8%B1%D8%A9

http://www.almarkaz.ma/Article.aspx?C=5912

http://shamela.ws/index.php/author/625

 

[1] Hier: http://elmalikia.blogspot.nl/2011/03/blog-post_2874.html

[2] Hier: http://malikiaa.blogspot.nl/2010/01/blog-post_2414.html

[3] Zie: https://www.academia.edu/3576083/Nasihat_al-Mugtarrin_of_Muhammad_Mayyara_d.1072_1662_a_collection_of_fatwa-s_on_the_Bildiyyin_of_Fes?auto=download

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Sadl in salat prohibited? Misunderstandings explained

Classical example of misreading and misunderstanding a hadith or taking your (own) understanding directly from the texts of the Sunnah of the Prophet (s.a.w.s.)

In a hadith in the Sunan of imam Tirmidhi we can read the Prophet (s.a.w.s.) prohibited sadl in salat. There you have proof the Malikis who pray with sadl got it all wrong! The Prophet s.a.w.s. clearly said it and the word is there litterally in the hadith (we can imagine someone saying). What clearer proof do you want?  Brother/sister, can you go wrong reading this single hadith! How you might wonder?

1.) There are more ahadith on this subject, reading these will clarify to you what the Prophet (s.a.w.s.) meant exactly. See here: http://sunnah.com/search/?q=%D8%B3%D8%AF%D9%84  Always look at a hadith in perspective of other relevant ahadith on the same subject. Rulings are not established on a single hadith. Making up rulings after reading a hadith is wrong.

2.) Check an Arabic dictionary for the meaning of sadl, like the one of Hans Wehr for example, where we can read the verb sadala (or saddala) refers to letting something hang down, fall down, drop or to lower something. A sidl or a sudl is a veil or a curtain.

Knowing some Arabic is fundamental for understanding what you read.

3.) Sadl is specifically an issue in Maliki fiqh and thus the word also has a fiqhi or technical meaning instead of the linguistical meaning, although they are related. If you are not familiar with this issue you have a lot to learn still.

4.) In the hadith we read in the Sunan of imam Tirmidhi it refers to a prohibition of trailing the garments (like for a example the ‘abbayah or jalabiyyah) in prayer and not to the position of the arms in prayer as is known from Maliki fiqh texts like al-Murshid al-Mu’in. In that text it has been stated explicitly it is mandub (recommended) to let your arms hang down your sides in prayer. This is called sadl.

5.) Read the hadith with a teacher who will explain it to you or ask a teacher after you have read a hadith about the meaning.

6.) Taking your ‘knowledge’ directly from the sources without a teacher is not the way to learn and study. You will misread and misunderstand the Qur’an and the Sunnah.

To conclude: So to let your garments trail in the prayer (not the ‘imamah though!) is prohibited but not to let your arms hang down in the prayer.

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Etiquettes of war / jihad

In hadith nr. 390 of the work by shaykh ‘Abd al-Ghaffar Hasan “The Way of the Prophet” we read: On the authority of Anas b. Malik (r.) that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) said: ‘Go forth [in jihad against the enemy] with the Name of Allah, by [the capability and support of] Allah and [remain steadfast] upon the way of the Messenger of Allah. Do not kill the frail, old man, the small child or the woman. Do not steal from the war booty. Gather your gains and behave with righteousness and excellence, for truly, Allah loves those who show excellence.’ Abu Dawud (Mishkat, Chapter on Fighting during jihad, hadith nr. 3956)

In the commentary it is said: Islam has explained the fundamental etiquette of war, that one should only fight enemy combatants. One must not target innocent children, women or decrepit, elderly people.

Other etiquettes of war from this hadith:

  • jihad (only) in the name of Allah
  • rely on Allah’s help and assistance
  • folllow the sunna of the Prophet s.a.w.s.
  • don’t steal from the booty / spoils of war
  • gather the gains
  • behave with righteousness (islah) and excellence (ihsan)

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The meaning of at-tahlukah in aya 2:195 of the Qur’an

In hadith nr. 1316 of Bulugh ul-Maram by imam Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani rahimahullah we can read the following: Abu Ayyub (al-Ansari) -may Allah be pleased with him- narrated that this verse (Q. 2:195) was revealed concerning us (al-Ansar). He was referring to the verse “And don’t throw yourselves into destruction (at-tahlukah)“. Abu Ayyub said that to answer those who disapproved of the action of those who attacked ar-Rum (Byzantines) till they were amidst their army. Related by the three imams. At-Tirmidhi, Ibn Hibban and al-Hakim graded it as sahih.

In the accompanying footnote it is said: When the Muslims confronted the Rum at Constantinopel, a Muslim fighter attacked the lines of the Rum until he was in their midst, and then returned. People then cried: ‘He is throwing himself into destruction.’ Abu Ayyub then told them that they are misinterpreting the verse which was revealed concerning the Ansar, when Allah granted them victory they said to themselves secretly: our property was lost, so why don’t we stay here to take care of our property and regain what we have lost (and leave jihad in the cause of Allah). Allah the Almighty then revealed this verse to show them that the real destruction occurs by staying back in their dwellings and not spending their wealth in the cause of Allah.

Shaykh dr. ‘Abd ul-‘Azim Badawi -in his work Al-Wajiz fi Fiqh as-Sunnah wa’l-Kitab al-‘Aziz (English translation, pp. 651, 652) mentions this as well and refers to the tafsir of Ibn Kathir where this story has been mentioned.

This aya and hadith are proofs for the permissibility of inghimas / taghrir bi’l-nafs in a jihad.

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